Am J Perinatol. 2019 Feb 1. doi: 10.1055/s-0039-1678558. [Epub ahead of print]
Is Milrinone Effective for Infants with Mild-to-Moderate Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia?
Mears M1,2, Yang M2,3, Yoder BA2,3.
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 Pulmonary hypertension with left ventricular dysfunction commonly occurs in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor with lusitropic and vasodilator effects, is used in up to 30% of CDH infants across the United States. No randomized trials have tested the efficacy or safety of milrinone in CDH neonates.

 We performed a paired retrospective analysis of CDH infants to assess the efficacy of milrinone treatment (N = 24 pairs). Efficacy was assessed by change in oxygenation index (OI) and calculated pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). We evaluated safety on the basis of risks factors such as nonoperative bleeding, dysrhythmia, hypokalemia, and thrombocytopenia.

 The median age of milrinone initiation was 18 hours (interquartile range [IQR]: 9-3 and the median duration was 127 hours (IQR: 95-194). PAP did not change from the baseline of 49  11 mm Hg (milrinone) and 53  11 mm Hg (No milrinone; p = 0.327). Baseline OI was 9.6  6.5. There was a similar decrease in OI (median [IQR]; milrinone: 58% [16-74]; vs. no milrinone: 65% [50-71]; p = 0.221 between groups; p < 0.005 within groups). Baseline left ventricle measurements were similar. Both groups showed significant improvement over time. No adverse events were noted.

 In OI-matched untreated neonates with mild-to-moderate CDH, milrinone use was associated with neither improved OI, PAP, or left ventricular measurements, nor adverse events. Study limitations warrant prospective randomized controlled trials.

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PMID: 30708393 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1678558